Centos Chroot

12 Dec 2017 19:49

Let's say you want a chroot with CentOS with an older version of the system to test something.

Get the minimal root fs

  1. Check out Docker images for CentOS: https://hub.docker.com/_/centos/
  2. Follow the Dockerfile link for the version you're interested in, say 6.6: https://github.com/CentOS/sig-cloud-instance-images/blob/8911843d9a6cc71aadd81e491f94618aded94f30/docker/Dockerfile
  3. Go one level up in GitHub and locate the centos-*.tar.xz file, it's the archive with the mininal rootfs for CentOS: https://github.com/CentOS/sig-cloud-instance-images/blob/8911843d9a6cc71aadd81e491f94618aded94f30/docker/centos-6.6-20150304_1234-docker.tar.xz
  4. Click the download link

Prepare a directory, unpack the root fs

sudo mkdir -p /mnt/centos-chroot/
# You may need to uncompress the XZ file, but my tar could deal with it, so try yourself:
sudo tar -xf /path/to/centos-6.6-20150304_1234-docker.tar.xz
# Mount some pseudo filesystems:
cd /mnt/centos-chroot/
sudo mount --bind /sys sys
sudo mount --bind /dev dev
sudo mount -t proc proc proc

Enter your precious chroot:

sudo chroot /mnt/centos-chroot/ /bin/bash
. /etc/environment


Comments: 0

Server Commander

12 Jul 2017 04:46

Here's a problem I'd like was already solved:

Be able to manage and run "tasks" on a Linux server. More specifically:

  • There should be a WEB interface where:
    • I could define commands or tasks that the server is capable of doing
    • I could schedule tasks to run at specific times (like cron)
  • The tasks/commands should be (optionally) parametrized
  • The tasks/commands should be (optionally) stored in GitHub and/or a database
  • The task runs should not overlap with each other (i.e. when the previous run is still in progress don't start the new one) — configurable
  • The task configuration should include:
    • the command to run
    • task timeout — the task should be killed after the specified time
    • environment variables to set for the task
    • max CPU/memory/disk to use (optional)
    • number of times to retry on failure
    • what to do on success and failure — e-mail, webhook and trigger another task
    • directory to run the command in: I can specify one, or a temporary one is created for each run and cleared after the run
    • user to run the command as: I can specify one, or a temporary user is created for each run and cleared after the run
  • The task run view should include
    • colored command output
    • command exit code: OK/FAIL
    • resources used by the task (optional)
    • time the task took, time the task started and ended
    • environment variables
    • link to next/previous run and a button to re-run
  • The code should be free and open and extremely easy to install
  • There should be an error log in the UI to track all the jobs failures
  • Misconfigured tasks should not take the machine down — there should be some level of monitoring — don't start new jobs when load is high or disk is almost full, etc
  • One should be able to have a nice dashboard with selected tasks for easy launching

What I describe here is to some extent already covered by some of the following:

Here's what's wrong with them:

  • Jenkins' UI is to complicated for simple tasks, also it feel very heavy
  • in Travis-CI you specify the tasks in your code, not in Travis, also it's not software you run locally
  • My experience with Rundeck is it doesn't work out of the box, I could debug it, but I didn't want to, also UI is a bit too complex
  • Minicron is way too simple and (currently) only allows you to run jobs through ssh (not locally)

To reiterate I'd like:

  • A web UI for cron, that's also
  • a bit like Jenkins in a way you can see the output of each of the command runs
  • and have ability to sandbox the processes it runs
  • looks nice and is easy to install and doesn't require maintenance

Comments: 3

How To Disable Kinetic Scrolling On Linux

14 Feb 2017 04:44

I spent more time than I wished searching for how to disable kinetic scrolling on Linux. Here's the spell:

$ synclient CoastingSpeed=0

Comments: 2

Monitoring Freezer Temperature

25 Sep 2016 22:11

For some time we've had suspicions the freezer in our apartment doesn't work correctly. Recently my wife reached to it to get some ice cubes but found water in the form instead. That clearly meant the temperature was over the freezing point and stayed there for some time. She put a thermometer on the fridge, put the sensor into the freezer and started watching the readings. The temperature reached around -20°C and stayed there, fluctuating between -15°C and -20°C.

The webcam reader

I decided, it's time to record the temperature, so I brought the laptop, adjusted the screen angle, set the brightness to max and took a shot from the webcam to see if the thermometer is in the view of the camera:

mplayer tv:// -vo png -frames 3

This takes 3 frames from the webcam and saves them as PNG files: 00000001.png, 00000002.png, and 00000003.png. If you wonder why I need 3 frames, the first one is always under- or overexposed and out of focus, the second is usually OK and the third is almost always good (as for a webcam), so long story short, I'm giving some time to the camera to auto-adjust its settings.

Here's a script that does just a bit more than that:


set -e

export DISPLAY=:0

curdate=`date +%x-%X | sed 's/[\.:]//g'`

mkdir -p /home/quake/git/thermonitor/out/ /home/quake/git/thermonitor/tmp
cd /home/quake/git/thermonitor/tmp

# White background
ristretto ../white.png &

# Wake screen
xte "mousemove 100 100"
sleep 0.2
xte "mousemove 99 99"

# Dump screen
mplayer tv:// -vo png -frames 5 -noconsolecontrols
cp "$tmppng" "$outpng"
echo "$outpng"

kill $!

It's very hacky, but here are the big parts:

  • set -e makes the script stop if any of the commands in it fail
  • export DISPLAY=:0 selects the default X display, so I can run the command from an SSH shell
  • Then we have some hard-coded paths to tmp and out directories
  • ristretto ./white.png & starts a image-viewer and shows a white.png file which is a big all-white file. This makes the screen display enough white, so the LCD thermometer is properly lit
  • I use xte to move the mouse around: this blocks the automatic screen dimming, so the screen continues to be 100% bright
  • Then we have the mplayer command from before, just changed to 5 frames (just to be sure) and -noconsolecontrols. mplayer kind of hangs when you start it without a proper terminal on stdin, unless you pass this option
  • Then I copy the 5th frame to the output file, which has the current date and the time in its path
  • Finally I close the ristretto process I opened before

I run this command in a while loop like that:

while sleep 28 ; do  ./dup.sh ; done

./dup.sh takes around 2 seconds, so I have about 2 photos a minute.

I put that to a screen session.

Now in the out directory I serve the files using Python HTTP server:

python -m SimpleHTTPServer

This starts an HTTP server on port 8000 and serves all the files and creates an index of them when requesting /.

The processing

How easier to copy the HTTP-exposed files than using a plain-old wget command?

wget -r http://dell:8000/

This creates directory dell:8000 and downloads all the PNG files to it.

Once you have that directory you may later want to update it with only the newer files:

rm dell\:8000/index.html
wget -nc -r http://dell:8000/

The -nc switch makes wget ignore files that are already there. We explicitly remove the index.html so it downloads a new list (that includes newer files).

I wanted to make a program that gets a photo of the 7-segment display and reads it producing a number that along with the date could be used to graph the temperature over time.

First, let's use ImageMagick to:

  • crop the picture to only the interesting part: the OUT reading
  • shear the picture to make the LCD segments vertical and horizontal, not skewed
  • bump contrast/gamma to remove the noise
  • auto-adjust the visual properties of the picture so it's more consistent across different times (like night vs day)
  • make it black and white — turned out it works best if I only use the Green channel, R and B turned out more noisy than G.
  • resize to as small size as needed — for easier and faster processing

Here's the actual command:

convert $file_in -gamma 1.5 -auto-level -brightness-contrast 35x80 -shear -14x0 -crop 260x70+320+227 -channel Green -separate -resize 40x20 $file_out

Input image:


Output image:


Zoomed in:


You can see the bottom segment is not really visible, but that's OK, all the digits can be properly read without that segment being visible, so we'll only consider the 6 segments that we can easily read.

Now comes the meat, the Python program reading the file and returning the temperature:

#!/usr/bin/env python
#encoding: utf-8
from PIL import Image
# Points that hold each segment:
# d1 is the first digit
d1_sA = [(12,1), (13,1), (14,1), (15,1)]
d1_sB = [(18,2), (18,3), (18,4), (18,5)]
d1_sC = [(18,8), (18,9)]
d1_sE = [(11,8), (12,9), (11,9), (12,8)]
# Don't need this, as we only ever have 1 and 2 in the first place
d1_sF = []
d1_sG = [(13,7), (14,7), (15,7), (16,7)]
# d2 is the second digit
d2_sA = [(24,1), (25,1), (26,1), (27,1)]
d2_sB = [(29,2), (29,3), (29,4), (29,5)]
d2_sC = [(29,8), (29,9)]
d2_sE = [(22,8), (22,9)]
d2_sF = [(22,2), (22,3), (22,4), (22,5)]
d2_sG = [(24,6), (25,6), (26,6), (24,7), (25,7), (26,7)]
# d3 is the small digit (first after the decimal point)
d3_sA = [(35,4), (36,4), (37,4)]
d3_sB = [(38,5), (38,6), (38,7)]
d3_sC = [(38,9)]
d3_sE = [(34,9)]
d3_sF = [(34,5), (34,6), (34,7)]
d3_sG = [(35,8), (36,8)]
# Now the tricky part, for each segment I define a threshold below which I consider it "lit"
# 0 means completely black, 255 is white.
# Because of uneven lighting, for each segment (and digit, but we ignore that) the value is different.
tA = 200
tB = 170
tC = 120
tE = 115
tF = 140
tG = 170
# A threshold for the "-" sign
tSIGN = 200
# All of those were obviously updated on the go to match the files
# A nice debugging function that prints which segments the code considers lit
# Also if you wondered what A, B, C, E, F, G meant, here's the schematic:
def print_digit(segs):
    # Only print this if there's a second argument to the script passed
    if len(sys.argv) == 2:
    print '''
                                                                                {F}      {B}
                                                                                {F}      {B}
                                                                                {F}      {B}
                                                                                {E}      {C}
                                                                                {E}      {C}
                                                                                {E}      {C}
    A='###' if 'A' in segs else '   ',
    B='###' if 'B' in segs else '   ',
    C='###' if 'C' in segs else '   ',
    E='###' if 'E' in segs else '   ',
    F='###' if 'F' in segs else '   ',
    G='###' if 'G' in segs else '   ',
# This doesn't do anything spectacular, just passes the coordinates for each of the segments and the average value of the first 9 pixels of the image: (0,0) - (3,3)
def read_digit(im, pointsA, pointsB, pointsC, pointsE, pointsF, pointsG, avg9px):
     segs = ''
     segs += 'A' if read_segment(im, pointsA, tA-avg9px) else ''
     segs += 'B' if read_segment(im, pointsB, tB-avg9px) else ''
     segs += 'C' if read_segment(im, pointsC, tC-avg9px) else ''
     segs += 'E' if read_segment(im, pointsE, tE-avg9px) else ''
     segs += 'F' if read_segment(im, pointsF, tF-avg9px) else ''
     segs += 'G' if read_segment(im, pointsG, tG-avg9px) else ''
# A list of all digits and their representation on the 7-segment display:
     if segs == 'ABCEF':
         return 0
     if segs == 'BC':
         return 1
     if segs == 'ABEG':
         return 2
     if segs == 'ABCG':
         return 3
     if segs == 'BCFG':
         return 4
     if segs == 'ACFG':
         return 5
     if segs == 'ACEFG':
         return 6
     if segs == 'ABC':
         return 7
     if segs == 'ABCEFG':
         return 8
     if segs == 'ABCFG':
         return 9
# A special case for the first digit, it doesn't display "0", just doesn't display any segments
     if segs == '':
         return 0
# The function that takes the PIL image object, gets a list of (x,y) coordinates
# and checks if the average value of them is smaller than the threshold passed: segment "on"
# For 0 points passed it returns False: segment "off"
def read_segment(im, points, threshold=128):
    val = 0
    for point in points:
        val += im.getpixel(point)
    return val < threshold * len(points)
# Nothing interesting in here, just for printing the date from the file name
def get_date(file_name):
    time_str = file_name.split('-')[-1].replace('.png', '')
    d1, d2, m1, m2, y1, y2, y3, y4 = file_name.split('/')[-1].split('-')[0]
    return '{}{}/{}{}/{}{}{}{} '.format(m1, m2, d1, d2, y1, y2, y3, y4) + '{}{}:{}{}:{}{}'.format(*list(time_str))
# A bunch of imports in the middle of the file
# Don't do that at home ;-)
import sys
import subprocess
# This will be for example: pngs/dell\:8000/24092016-101055.png
file_in = sys.argv[1]
# And this: processed-pngs/dell\:8000/24092016-101055.png
file_out = 'processed-' + file_in
# Calling the ImageMagick as discussed in the article
subprocess.check_call(['convert', file_in, '-gamma', '1.5', '-auto-level', '-brightness-contrast', '35x80', '-shear', '-14x0', '-crop', '260x70+320+227', '-channel', 'Green', '-separate', '-resize', '40x20', file_out])
# Reading what it created
# Now a thing I added at some point later.
# Because of different lighting throughout the day and because the ImageMagick command
# above was not good compensating for it (in spite of auto-level and high contrast)
# some of the images were darker than the others. In most images (the ideal scenario for the code)
# the first 9 pixels of the image (0,0) to (3,3) were just white (or very close), but in those darker
# images the whole image was darker and I used the first 9 pixels to detect how much darker
first9px = im.getpixel((0,0)) + im.getpixel((0,1)) + im.getpixel((0,2)) \
         + im.getpixel((1,0)) + im.getpixel((1,1)) + im.getpixel((1,2)) \
         + im.getpixel((2,0)) + im.getpixel((2,1)) + im.getpixel((2,2))
# This is the compensation, for most of the images it's 0 or very few, but for darker images, it's more
avg9px = 255-first9px/9
num = '{}{}{}.{}'.format(
    '-' if read_segment(im, [(2,6), (3,6), (4,6)], tSIGN-avg9px) else '+',
    read_digit(im, d1_sA, d1_sB, d1_sC, d1_sE, d1_sF, d1_sG, avg9px),
    read_digit(im, d2_sA, d2_sB, d2_sC, d2_sE, d2_sF, d2_sG, avg9px),
    read_digit(im, d3_sA, d3_sB, d3_sC, d3_sE, d3_sF, d3_sG, avg9px),
if 'None' not in num:
    print get_date(file_in) + '\t' + num
# If there's a second argument to the script passed, show the original image for comparison
if len(sys.argv) > 2:

Even though this script is so simple, after tweaking the thresholds, most of the files were recognized correctly, those that weren't had one or more non-recognized digits, so they were easy to filter out. For over 1-day worth of images, only 2 or 3 minutes had a missing reading.

I loaded the data to LibreOffice and generated this pretty graph:


Timelapse video

Another approach visualizing the data was to create a video.

The plan:

  • Annotate the images with the recorded time
  • Compose the video from single frames, putting 60 frames per a second of the resulting video

60 frames a second with roughly 2 frames captured a minutes means a day of recording is compressed to:

2 frames a minute * 60 minutes an hour * 24 hours a day = 2880 frames
2880 frames / 60 frames a second = 48 seconds

This makes is "viewable". 60 FPS (versus 30 FPS at higher speed) means you can pause at any time and read the crisp time and temperature.

Here's the annotate part:

#!/usr/bin/env python
import sys
import subprocess
path_in = sys.argv[1]
path_out = sys.argv[2]
date, time = path_in.replace('.png', '').split('/')[-1].split('-')
D1, D2, M1, M2, Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4 = date
h1, h2, m1, m2, s1, s2 = time
label = '{}{}/{}{}/{}{}{}{} {}{}:{}{}:{}{}\\n'.format(M1, M2, D1, D2, Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, h1, h2, m1, m2, s1, s2)
    'convert', path_in,
    '-gravity', 'south',
    '-pointsize', '45',
    '-font', 'FreeMono',
    '-annotate', '0', label,
    '-fill', 'black',

Here's the result:


Running this in a loop, 16 images at a time:


for file_in in dell*/*.png; do
  file_out="`printf "labeled/%06d.png" $i`"
  echo ./add-labels.py "$file_in" "$file_out"
done | parallel -j 16

In addition to annotatig the image it also names them as 000001.png, 000002.png etc, which makes it easy for avconv to convert them to a video:

avconv -fflags +genpts -r 60 -i labeled/%06d.png -r 60 temperature.mkv

And here's the video:

Comments: 0

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